Your Information Source for Rapier Combat in the Kingdom of Caid

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Capo Ferro 101 – Diego de Palma

By Ld Diego de Palma

Capo Ferro 101: A practical approach to the basic philosophies and techniques from Simulcro Dellarte Edelluso Della Scherma – “Great Representation on the Art and Use of Fencing”
Original Text by Ridolpho Capo Ferro (1610)Translation by Jerek Swanger and William E. Wilson

Class and Handout by Lord Diego de Palma

This class goes over some of the basic techniques and ideas from Capo Ferro’s work including attacking in defense, tempo and measure, and basic form. The handout also contains some advice for those who are looking into exploring the text in depth including what to expect from the various sections of the text and some alternative ways to look at the plates.


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Connecting Sword, Hand, and Heart

By THL Mora Ottavia Spadera

This class handout presents the perspectives of historical texts, modern sports psychology, the science of perceptual motor learning, and observations from successful fighters in the SCA.

If you’ve been practicing for a long time, and can’t quite break through to the next level, or to the next round in tournament, it may be your head that’s holding you back. This handout, and the class it was written for, will provide you with vocabulary and tools to look at how your brain is helping or hurting your fight, and how to train it alongside your body. There is a long list of ideas to help you make your practice time more effective, enabling you to advance the application of your Art in whatever way inspires you.

The Fighting Headspace Questionaire will help you look at your tournament head-space as well. After answering honestly, if you find an answer you don’t like, it’s worth looking at ways to reframe that part of how you approach your game.
 While coming primarily from a rapier fighter’s perspective, this handout is applicable to any martial art or life activity you pursue.
Lady Mora is incredibly happy to spend time with individual fighters looking at how their brains are operating in their fight and looking for potential opportunities to improve. Please don’t hesitate to seek her out, at an event or electronically.

Connecting Sword Hand and Heart Handout

Fighting Headspace Questionaire

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Rule Update on Spears

A Rule Update on Spears was posted by the Society Rapier Marshal (Laertes McBride) regarding the use of Spears and other Polearm style weapons on the Rapier Field.

Please note, as with all rulings, it is subject to the BoD’s oversight and has been submitted as part of the Q1 report.  Until otherwise notified, all weapons that fall under this classification are now subject to the ruling.

March 17, 2014 – Ruling on Spears/Polearms/Pikes

Additions/revisions are being made to the October 2013 version of the handbook to address the use of Spears/Pikes/Polearms on the rapier field. Please check with your area’s Kingdom Rapier Marshal on how this classification of weapon is being used.

See new section: Weapons and Parrying Devices 5. Spears/Pikes/Polearms

What this ruling does:

  • Mandate that fighters must be authorized before using this type of weapon on the field.
  • Establish a baseline definition of this class of weapon.
  • Provide a common ground starting point for the use of these weapons at interkingdom events. 

What this ruling does NOT do:

  • Force kingdoms to use this weapon. As with all of the rules, kingdoms are allowed to be more restrictive than the Society rules. If a kingdom is not interested in having spears as part of their program, there is now a clear definition of the weapon.
  • Limit how these weapons are used in wars. As with mock gunnery (RBGs), it is up to the kingdoms and stewards of interkingdom wars to determine how many of these weapons are used on the field. It is being strongly suggested that they follow the current convention of mock gunnery (percentage of fighters on the field – usually 10%).
  • Detail the exact authorization procedure. As with all the other weapons and forms, it is up to each kingdom to determine the best authorization procedure for their area. Kingdoms also have the option to designate these weapons as “experimental” in their kingdom in order to build hands-on experience before moving forward.


Introduction to the German Rappier of Joachim Meyer (1570)

By Don Lot Ramirez

This class has been taught at a number of Events, including Practicum of the Sword and Talon-Crescent Festival.  I created a video after a similar class taught at SoCal Swordfight 2013 (, a non-SCA HEMA event as an addendum to the class.  This is not an exact replication of the class that may have been taught, but is a great add on and reminder for the basic information from the class.


Counter-Disengage 3: On What We’re Doing, and What Follows

By Don Todde MacDonnell

If this is your first encounter to the Counter-Disengage Forum, please read the Introductory post kindly provided for your convenience.

The SCA doesn’t officially give us a context for rapier tournaments.  Are we supposed to consider each fight a duel, which mortal results?  This rapidly leads to paradoxes, but it’s the context assumed by Crown Tourney fighter poems (in which the loser is often eulogized), and the custom of falling over dead.  It also means winning (or yielding alive) is pretty darn close to everything, the word-fame of dying at in the third round of Tawanyour Anniversary being somewhat limited.  Given how many of us accept Don Laertes’ offer to yield and seek the aid of a surgeon, or arrange for seconds to carry their body off the field, I doubt many of us approach fights with that mindset, but if you do, I’d love to read your perspective in the comments.


At the other extreme, we’re just here to have fun (and/or competition), fence with our friends, see who wins, then go get dinner.  The tourney context (and by extension, SCA feudal society) is pasted-on chrome.  I do see some newbies and sport fencers who start with this mindset, but many of them either develop an interest in the society culture, or lose interest in the SCA and wander off, leaving few SCA veterans with this philosophy.  Or so I think… again, tell me about it below!


For me, and for most of the people I’ve conversed with, tourneys are a public demonstration of prowess (and other virtues), with bated blades, for the entertainment of the assembled nobles and populace, and a formality that exceeds a practice mentality.  My goal is to show myself skilled, courageous, and gracious in victory or defeat; the audience are the observers of that effort, and in many ways, the reason for the tourney.


I imagine our motivation would have been a similar thing in period, when the crowd was more likely to be armed with rotten fruit, or seeded with nobles whose patronage you hoped to attract.  In both those cases, it matters that you please the crowd one way or another…by winning often if you are able, but also by charming them with wit, impressing them with courage, exciting them with action, or granting the opponent a triumph by collapsing or bowing low in defeat.  One need not win the bout to gain admiration, but you must do something appealing.


So, gentle reader, assuming you hold this last philosophy, or are persuaded that it might be worth trying, I ask a three favors on behalf of the gallery:


First, keep your fights lively.  In a renaissance tournament, it would have been nearly inexcusable for two fighters to stand back and wait for the other to do something for more than a couple minutes (fewer if the tomatoes were ripe).  Even if no one seems to be watching, the marshals are standing in the sun, the next fighters are wandering off, the listmistress is waiting for you to finish, and the knight in the corner is reminiscing about that hourlong rapier final at Starkhafn Anniversary.

Second, die obviously. As a blunt rule of thumb, a deaf newbie 40 feet away should be able to tell that you lost.  Fall over, bow deeply, collapse on the eric post, or drop your sword and mime blood bursting from your chest. Saying “good” to your opponent and shaking his hand doesn’t cut it.  Even if he’s not deaf, the newbie can’t hear your call of “good”, and if she can, probably can’t tell who said what.  Likely, neither can the baroness trying to watch her semifinals.  Cut them some slack and bow deeply.

Finally, remember the audience, and see what happens. Take note of them when you salute.  Imagine their interest as you try an assault.  Amuse them if the fight is dragging.  Maybe you’ll discover a bit more panache or courage in yourself trying to get out.  Maybe someone in the audience will notice your efforts, and something will come of it.  It’s worth a try.


Counter-Disengage 2: On Unbalanced Tournaments

By Don Todde MacDonnell

If this is your first encounter to the Counter-Disengage Forum, please read the Introductory post kindly provided for your convenience.

At a tournament some years ago, as we gathered to hear quarterfinal
pairings, I heard a voice over my shoulder. “What I surprise… Todde
and a bunch of scarves…”

Standard double elim tournies do an excellent job of of consistently
putting the best fighters in the final, and if there was less
variation in prowess across the kingdom, that might work out fine.
But it’s not, and so quarterfinals feature the same six scarves, plus
one or two mid-level fighters having a great day.  Occasionally, one
of the latter makes the finals; but usually, it’s the same final we
saw last month.  Is that boring for you?  Is that boring for the
populace and the crown?  Probably.  It’s awfully boring for me.

So I ask: Who should be in the semis and finals?  The best fighters
present (you know, the same six scarves), or the fighters having the
best day?  If the purpose of our tournaments is to test ourselves and
entertain the populace, then a final of two scarves having an average
day doesn’t cut it.  We need to handicap tournaments so that more
fighters have a shot at the finals, and a scarf having an average day
is out in four (or places third in their pool, or whatever).  From the
scarf end, this is far more satisfying: I have to bring my best fight
each round, not just hide behind a buckler, fight conservatively, and
wait for a safe kill.  But how does the mid-level fencer feel about
being granted an advantage because they’re less of a hot stick?  The
answer I’ve heard is that some of the time, it’s fun, and some of the
time, they want a fair fight.  (And I’m hoping to hear some comments
on what you really think)

Conveniently, some of our tournaments seek to reward the very best
fighters, and will always be fought with even odds.  But more of them,
even baronial championships, should be weighted against the scarves.
Might that result in a third-year fighter being the champion of
Angels?  Absolutely.  Instead of the hot scarf stuffing another cloak and
buckler in his golf case, we give a newer fighter (who only has to
represent one barony, instead of four) the chance to learn to be a
champion.  I submit that at least half our tournaments should be
unbalanced, and preferably not all in silly ways.

Now I come to the nuts and bolts of how to run a handicapped
tournament, and there are a lot possibilities here.  My ground rules
for tourney design:
– Most of the time, both fighters should have a chance (try not to
give too little or too much advantage)
– Try to help the lesser fighters win a fight or two (or at least not
be knocked out in two)
– Some randomness is good, where it varies the advantage given; but
take care that the cards or dice don’t pick the winner
– The fights, and especially the final, should be fun to watch (e.g.
people fighting offhand single aren’t much fun to watch)

One other point worth mentioning, and this is important if you want to give the underdogs a chance: The more “fair” fights a fighter has
to lose to be knocked out, the more this favors the scarf.  Running a
triple elim, or best 2-of-3 matches, makes upsets less likely.  Single
elims have the highest variance, but their own downsides.  A round
robin, however, is more like single or double elim, since the
difference between first and second place in a group is often one win.

And now, some tournament formats, focusing on a few that “smell like” fair tournaments:
Progressive Weapons Triple Elim: Anyone with zero losses must fight
single sword.  Anyone with one loss may use a defensive secondary.
Anyone with two losses may use their choice of weapons.  Scarves are
always required to use single sword against a nonscarf.  Note that
this is more about helping the lower-ranked fighters stay in the
tourney longer.  If you drop the “scarves use single sword” rule, it
strongly favor the scarves, because it’s a triple-elim.

Noble’s Challenge: Enlist your friendly local noble or three, and have
them wander around an otherwise normal tourney, issuing challenges to
fighters who outmatch their opponent. “Say, Don Diego, I wonder if you
can win this next fight with this handpuppet here as an offhand,
instead of your dagger.”  To up the ante, let that noble choose the
winner of the day.

Bonus Round: Not a balancing format, but lets the out-in-two crowd to
fight more.  Take the fighters eliminated in the first 2-3 rounds, and
shuffle them up at lists.  Pair them up with each other so they have
fights in rounds 3 and 4.  You don’t have to record the results, but
it gives them tourney experience with fighters at their level.

As food for thought, here are a few unconventional unbalanced tourneys I’ve run:

Ransom tourney: Killing a scarf is worth $5, a mid-level fighter $2,
and an unscarf $1.  Fight open challenges for a period of time, but
once you lose fights equal to $10, you are out of money and out of the
tourney.  Money is recorded by lists so that you can’t use won money
to finance more lives.

Unbalanced dice tourney: Make up a table of results for 2d6 or a d20.
Include most of the weapons combos, plus “opponent must fight
offhand”, “arms invulnerable”, “ally arrives after 30 seconds”, and so
forth.  The default weapon form is single sword, but you only use it
if you don’t roll specific other weapons.  The fighters roll twice
before fighting.  The less experienced fighter gets first pick of the
results, the most experienced fighter gets the other.  If they
honestly can’t agree who is senior, they just keep their own roll.
You can run this elim, round robin, bearpit, however.  Just please, make dagger-only a very rare outcome.

Called Shot Tourney:
Make up cards for head, upper torso, lower torso,
right torso, left torso, sword arm, sword hand, offhand arm or hand,
either leg, either foot.  For each fight, the marshal draws 3 or 4
cards.  The less experienced fighter looks at all of them and draws
one of them.  The more experienced fighter looks at the other cards
and picks one.  You win by either hitting the target you selected.
Picking first is a strong advantage (especially if only 3 cards are
drawn), so if the two fighters are close to even, just hand out random


Counter-Disengage: An Introduction

By Don Todde MacDonnell

It won’t come as much surprise to many of our readers that I’ve volunteered to write an “alternate viewpoints” column for the caid-rapier website.   But *I* certainly had to stop and think about why I wanted to blog about delicate & contentious topics.   I’m not writing here to start arguments (though that will probably happen).  It’s not because I want a soapbox to be better heard.  It’s not even because I like to argue (though see below).  And only rarely will I be determined to convince you to agree with me.

I think (and I may be wrong) that my goal here is to start conversations on issues that people feel discouraged from discussing.  Some topics have been shot down by an influential scarf in the past, and ought to be revisited.  Some are “minority opinions”, but just maybe the majority agrees, and doesn’t realize it yet.  Some are awkward to talk about without offending someone.  Some are just not the Caidan way of doing things (and I aim to get some guest columnists).   I may not always agree with what I’m proposing, but it may be the best way I can think of to float the idea.

So, with that in mind, some ground rules for this forum:

  • I am fishing for discussion on each and every post I make (if that’s not so, it wouldn’t be posted in Counter-Disengage)
  • In Counter-Disengage comment threads, you, the readers, are explicitly allowed to argue forcefully with me. Naturally, I’d appreciate it if you can back up the rotten fruit with a good counter-argument.
  • However, please don’t be nasty to each other, or take hard feelings outside of the comment threads.  Even hard feelings at me.
  • If you want to send me a private email agreeing or disagreeing or swearing, go right ahead.  I’d prefer to have discussion publicly, where it benefits everyone, but do what you need to do.
  • Some topics have rough edges, and are hard to discuss without generalizing a group of fencers (it could be Westies, short newbies, or older & slower scarves).  When I do that (and I will), I apologize for any offense; try to look at the bigger picture in your reply.  Or don’t, but remember to aim the fruit at me, and not bystanders.
  • I am open to posting guest content in this forum, anonymously or not.  I will probably try to find a Black Tiger to tell us how they train, or an Atenveldter to tell us how they see Caidans, or folks from other organizations to tell us what we’re doing wrong.  Please email me if you have something to say.

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A Quick Lesson for the Use of Secondary Devices

By Don Lot Ramirez

Being able to utilize your sword and secondary in combination is the key to fighting effectively. If you have to spend time concentrating on using both hands simultaneously, you’ll react more slowly and have a harder time focusing on controlling the fight. Situating yourself in a posture, or guard, and being prepared with the most appropriate defense will speed up your decision-making and allow you to react quicker to your opponent’s actions.

There are a multitude of systems that can help this process, but I find the easiest and most flexible to be the ones presented by the Italian Masters of the early 17th Century. After distilling the works of Ridolfo Capo Ferro (1610), Nicoletto Giganti (1606), and Salvator Fabris (1606), we can find that all of these masters present a system that is fundamentally based on a quadrant defense. In these systems, more often than not, the secondary device (often a dagger) parries the incoming attack and a simultaneous counter attack occurs with the sword. The simultaneous action and reaction in this system allows for the secondary to be used primarily on defending the opponent’s attack and frees the sword to make the counter attack safely. The simultaneous attack and defense also cuts down the time the opponent has to react to your strike.

The quadrant defense:

The fundamental concept of this system is to break down your own target zone into 4 quadrants:

  1. Outside and above your secondary
  2. Outside and below your secondary
  3. Inside your secondary, above your sword
  4. Inside your secondary, below your sword

In each case, the defense is enacted to close the line of attack with the secondary and support the action by counter attacking with the sword. We are not simply impeding the arriving attack, but pushing forwards to actively disrupt and deflect the incoming attack. Also, by pushing forwards instead of sideways, we do not open a space between the sword and the secondary that the opponent can take advantage of.

Note in the examples below how the arms are portrayed moving forwards to defend the incoming attack.

The following images present examples from Capo Ferro’s 1610 treatise (Gran Simulacro…)[1] and a 1644 German-French reprint of Giganti’s 1606 (Scola overo teatro…)[2]:

Defenses in quadrant 1, outside and above your secondary:

– Giganti with sword and dagger

– Capo Ferro with sword and cape

– Capo Ferro with sword and Rotella

Defenses in quadrant 2, outside and below your secondary:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

Defenses in quadrant 3, inside your secondary, above your sword:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

Defenses in quadrant 4, inside your secondary, below your sword:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

The general idea of this system is that by simplifying everything into one of four defensive actions, you short cut your decision making of ‘how do I defend this attack?’, and move quickly into defending yourself. Wherever your opponent’s point goes, you counter with a deflection from your secondary, putting your sword to an opening in their defense, usually just inside of their sword arm, and pushing forward with a counter attack.

Try this with a friend:

  • Set yourself in guard with your secondary shoulder loose and as extended as possible without straining or rotating your back hip forwards.
  • Your partner approaches you in guard and aims their point where they see an opening, stopping just at the edge of their lunge distance.
  • Determine which quadrant they are pointing at and prepare the appropriate defense with the secondary.
  • Your partner attacks the opening with a lunge. You defend the attack with your secondary and extend your sword arm to where they are not defended.
  • Note: the key to this action is that both hands move forwards together, one defending and the other attacking. Leaning forward with your torso (and not moving your feet) will also help.
  • Repeat and practice defending against attacks to all 4 quadrants.

If you find that your partner is attacking the same quadrants over and over again, and not attacking others, then you are probably covering the un-attacked quadrants in your guard. Try situating yourself in a different position that will create a new opening for your partner to attack.

With practice you should find that you can easily respond to a predictable, straight-line attack, and can quickly assess where your opponent’s attack is directed. Also, you may find that if you situate yourself in specific postures, your opponent is more prone to attacking you in one spot more than another, making them more predictable and easier to counter.

1.Capo Ferro, Ridolfo. Scans of illustrations. Gran Simulacro della Arte e dell Uso della Scherma. Siena, Italy, 1610.

2. Giganti, Nicoletto. Scola, overo, Teatro : nelquale sono rappresentate diverse maniere, e modi di parare, e di ferire di spada sola, e di spada, e pugnale; dove ogni studioso portra essercitarsi e farsi prattico nella professione dell’ Armi. Herzog August Bibliothek. 2009.